Non-invasive intravenous administration of AAV9 transducing iduronate sulfatase leads to global metabolic correction and prevention of neurologic deficits in a mouse model of Hunter syndrome


Hunter syndrome is a rare x-linked recessive genetic disorder that affects lysosomal metabolism due to deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), with subsequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans heparan and dermatan sulfates (GAG). Enzyme replacement therapy is the only FDA-approved remedy and is an expensive life-time treatment that alleviates some symptoms of the disease without neurocognitive benefit. We previously reported successful treatment in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) using adeno-associated viral vector serotype 9 encoding human IDS (AAV9.hIDS) via intracerebroventricular injection. As a less invasive and more straightforward procedure, here we report intravenously administered AAV9.hIDS in a mouse model of MPS II. In animals administered 1.5 × 1012 vg of AAV9.hIDS at 2 months of age, we observed supraphysiological levels of IDS enzyme activity in the circulation (up to 9100-fold higher than wild-type), in the tested peripheral organs (up to 560-fold higher than wild-type), but only 4% to 50% of wild type levels in the CNS. GAG levels were normalized on both sides of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) in most of tissues tested. Despite low levels of the IDS observed in the CNS, this treatment prevented neurocognitive decline as shown by testing in the Barnes maze and by fear conditioning. This study demonstrates that a single dose of IV-administered AAV9.hIDS may be an effective and non-invasive procedure to treat MPS II that benefits both sides of the BBB, with implications for potential use of IV-administered AAV9 for other neuronopathic lysosomal diseases.

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